2002; Barker et al. This model uses the haploid chromosome number, defined as the number of apparently original unique chromosomes in a haploid set (Cusimano et al. The main tribes were collapsed. Recently, a probabilistic model of chromosome evolution within a phylogenetic framework, chromEvol, was made available (Mayrose et al. According to Glick and Mayrose (2014), in complex data sets such as the one used in this study, it is recommended to keep the base chromosome number fixed to the value given by β. 2007; Jiao et al. Note.—For the root fixed analyses, the ancestral number given by ML method and the two best ancestral numbers as inferred by the Bayesian analyses were considered. Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant.It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds and was used by the early Spanish colonies along the Rio Grande as a substitute for saffron. Both coding schemes supported the same model, with similar parameter values being obtained (table 2), but the use of single data inferred almost 30% more chromosomal change events than polymorphic data. 2013: Thalictrum, Ranunculaceae; Chacón et al. 2011, 2014). 2009; Anderberg 2009b). 2009). Plants are 30 to 150 cm (12 to 59 in) tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange, or red flowers. All models were fitted twice considering either single or polymorphic data, and the null hypothesis (no polyploidy) was tested using an AIC test. For example, the recurrent presence of polyploids in habitats different from those of their diploid progenitors constitutes strong evidence of the ability of polyploids to colonize new environmental niches (Hegarty and Hiscock 2008). Our best model inferred some of the WGDs suggested in previous analyses of ESTs (Barker et al. Vallès JGarnatje TGarcia SSanz MKorobkov AA. In all cases, the observed differences were very small (table 2). Our analyses of chromosome number evolution in Asteraceae revealed that the haploid chromosome number shifted frequently during the evolution of the family. Barker et al. (2009) with 757 taxa. The duplication event reported by Barker et al. 1999) cited in Watanabe et al. 2010) and to estimate the ancestral chromosome numbers at the internal nodes of the tree (Glick and Mayrose 2014). 2403 0 obj <> endobj Chromosome Number of Different Crop Material Agronomy Horticulture Plant Pathology Entemology Plant Breeding Genetics Current Affairs The template map included 2082 recombination events, of which 544 were transitions from homozygous to heterozygous genotypes, and 1538 were … It was observed that the base chromosome number in all the studied populations was X = 12 and the somatic number … Safflower / kusume BN:- Carthamus tinctorius Family:- Compositae Origin:- Mediterranean and Persian gulf Chromosome no:- 2n=24 Cultivated spp. (1960) and Vallès et al. In: Heywood VH, Harborne JB, Turner BL, editors.The Biology and Chemisty of the Compositae. Thus, all species of each genus had the same weight, and the frequency reveals the number of different species with each chromosome number and not the number of available counts. 2014), where descending dysploidy was also the most frequently inferred event. Their study is of utmost importance, especially now, as a probabilistic model is available to study chromosome evolution within a phylogenetic framework. 2009; Oberprieler et al. For the demiduplications rate, the obtained value was always lower for the averaging models than for the best model, independent of the coding scheme (table 2). 2014). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. 1974; Weitz 1989). In order to obtain a phylogenetic supertree with branch length information, a time-calibrated supertree was obtained following the procedure of Torices (2010). Stuessy T. 1977. (2008, 2016) on the basis of single species Ks plots of gene duplications and Multi-tAxon Paleopolyploidy Search (MAPS), respectively. Considering the information available in the databases, we collected chromosome numbers for 588 taxa, resulting in a final total coverage of chromosome number data for 77.7% of the taxa included in the supertree. (1960); Watanabe et al. Ann. A detailed analysis of the results obtained for each tribe reveals that in 71.74% of the cases the use of polymorphic data resulted in higher posterior probabilities than single data in 27.27% of the tribes with a PP higher than 0.90. Accurate assembly of complete genomes is facilitated by very high density genetic maps. 216 chromosomes, with n = 9 the most frequently observed haploid number (Semple and Watanabe 2009). 1). To test which haploid chromosome number is most likely to be present at the root of Asteraceae, the chromosome numbers inferred by the best-fitted model (see above) were fixed at the root and the likelihood of the resulting models was compared. A recent study exploring karyotypic changes in 15 clades of angiosperms also highlighted the co-occurrence of dysploidy and polyploidy (Escudero et al. Applied Botany Section, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur - 721 302, India. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is an annual forage legume and a traditional spice and aromatic crop that has been grown for centuries across the Indian subcontinent. Heliantheae: Systematic Review. To summarize, we reran the best model using the polymorphic data and fixed the root with each one of the hypothetical chromosome numbers. By budget-minded cooks 2007 ) ; x = 18 ( Watanabe et al centric chromosomes ranging in size 1.55... 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