The stage delays for FI, DI, FO, EI and WO are 5 ns, 7 ns, 10 ns, 8 ns and 6 ns, respectively. Best Books for Computer Organization and Architecture, GATE Weightage Analysis for Computer Organization, Computer Organization and Architecture Important Formulas, Notes on Machine Instructions and Addressing Modes, AAI ATC Recruitment Notification 2020 for Junior Executive (JE) ATC, AO & Technical, AFCAT 1 2021 Notification Out: Check Vacancies, Apply Online Link, Fee & Eligibility, NIELIT Scientist B & Technical Assistant A Answer Key 2020: Download, Key Challenge, PSU Recruitment through GATE 2021 - Jobs in PSU through GATE Score, Machine Instructions and Addressing Modes. Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial. The same processor is upgraded to a pipelined processor with five stages; but due to the internal pipelined delay, the clock speed is reduced to 2 gigahertz. Computer Organization & Architecture Notes, GATE Computer Science Notes, GATE Topic Wise Notes, Ankur Gupta GATE Notes, GATE Handwritten Notes, Topper Notes The cache block size is 16 bytes. b = 10 The memory access time is 1 nanosecond for a read operation with a hit in cache, 5 nanoseconds for a read operation with a miss in cache, 2 nanoseconds for a write operation with a hit in cache and 10 nanoseconds for a write operation with a miss in cache. In a k-way set associative cache, the cache is divided into v sets, each of which consists of k lines. A cache memory unit with capacity of N words and block size of B words is to be designed. Compulsory misses occur due to first time access to the block. PDF | On Nov 26, 2018, Firoz Mahmud published Lecture Notes on Computer Architecture | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The time to perform addition using this adder is. The processor generates 32-bit addresses. The new design has a total of eight pipeline stages. The miss rate of L1 and L2 respectively are: The read access times and the hit ratio for different caches in a memory hierachy are as given below. If it is included in an Instruction Set Architecture, then an additional ALU is required for effective address calculation In designing a computer’s cache system, the cache block (or cache line) size is an important parameter. The load-store instructions take two clock cycles to execute. 1 Modified bit Consider the following processors (ns stands for nanoseconds). BRANCH to Label if R1 == 0 c = a + b; The main memory block numbered j must be mapped to any one of the cache lines from. If no intermediate results can be stored in memory, what is the minimum number of registers needed to evaluate this expression? The size of the tag filed in bites is __________. The main memory blocks are numbered 0 onwards. The only allowed compiler optimization is code motion, which moves statements from one place to another while preserving correctness. The number of memory references for accessing the data in executing the program completely is: Assume that the memory is word addressable. P1: Four-stage pipeline with stage latencies 1 ns, 2 ns, 2 ns, 1 ns. Which of the instructions   I1,  I 2, I3 or  I4 can legitimatel y occupy the delay slot without any other program modification? If the clock frequency of p1 is 1GHz, then the clock frequency of p2 (in GHz) is _________. Consider the following instruction sequence. These notes will be helpful in preparing for semester exams and competitive exams like GATE, NET and PSU's. Operand forwarding is used in the pipelined processor. Where operation Op is performed on contents of registers Rj and Rk and the result is stored in register Ri. In execution of a program, 60% of memory read are for instruction fetch and 40% are for memory operand fetch. For computer based on three-address instruction formats, each address feild can be used to specify which of the following: The number of clock cycles required for completion of execution of the sequence of instructions is ______. The subject includes Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, Data‐path, and control unit, Instruction pipelining, Memory hierarchy: cache, Main memory, Secondary storage, and I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode) with a weightage of 6-9 marks. The pipeline registers are required between each stage and at the end of the last stage.Delays for the stages and for the pipeline registers are as given in the figure. Consider the following program segment. Do not apply any optimization other than optimizing register allocation. Each DMA transfer cycle takes two clock cycles to transfer one byte of data from the device to the memory. A hard disk has 63 sectors per track, 10 platters each with 2 recording surfaces and 1000 cylinders. Whereas, Organization defines the way the system is structured so that … In a two-level cache system, the access times of L1 and L2 caches are 1 and 8 clock cycles, respectively. MAR ← X     e = e * e; The PO stage takes 1 clock cycle for ADD and SUB instructions, 3 clock cycles for MUL instruction, and 6 clock cycles for DIV instruction respectively. Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial provides in-depth knowledge of internal working, structuring, and implementation of a computer system. PC ← Y      If count != 0 go to LOOP. Consider an instruction pipeline with four stages (S1, S2, S3 and S4) each with combinational circuit only. Assume that the data cache is initially empty. After the execution of this program, the content of memory location 2010 is: Assume that the memory is byte addressable and the word size is 32 bits. The following section contains various questions … (B) represents organization of single computer containing a control unit, processor unit and a memory unit. We have also provided number of questions asked since 2007 and average weightage for each subject. The lines of a set are placed in sequence one after another. The test contains all the questions related to Computer Organization and Architecture. return d + f III. The address of a sector is given as a triple 〈c,h,s〉, where c is the cylinder number, h is the surface number and s is the sector number. A 32-bit instruction word has an opcode, two register operands and an immediate operand. GATE 2019 CSE syllabus contains Engineering mathematics, Digital Logic, Computer Organization and Architecture, Programming and Data Structures, Algorithms, Theory of Computation, Compiler Design, Operating System, Databases, Computer Networks, General Aptitude. What is the minimum number of spills to memory in the compiled code? This sequence of instructions is to be executed in a pipelined instruction processor with the following 4 stages: (1) Instruction Fetch and Decode(IF), (2) Operand Fetch (OF), (3) Perform Operation(PO) and (4) Write back the result (WB). Logic Gates | Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial with introduction, evolution of computing devices, functional units of digital system, basic operational concepts, computer organization and design, store program control concept, von-neumann model, parallel processing, computer registers, control unit, … If the branch is taken during the execution of this program, the time (in ns) needed to complete the program is, A RAM chip has a capacity of 1024 words of 8 bits each (1K × 8). The IF, OF and WB stages take 1 clock cycle each for any instruction. The instructi ons produce result only in a register. The main memory consists of 256 blocks and the request for memory blocks is in the following order: 0, 255, 1, 4, 3, 8, 133, 159, 216, 129, 63, 8, 48, 32, 73, 92, 155. It must be a trap instruction Assuming that the immediate operand is an unsigned integer, the maximum value of the immediate operand is ____________. A certain processor uses a fully associative cache of size 16 kB. I2: MUL R7., R1, R3 What is the total size of memory needed at the cache controller to store meta-data (tags) for the cache? The miss rate L2 expressed correct to two decimal places is _________. The effective address of the memory location is obtained by the addition of a constant 20 and the contents of register R2. Binary logic deals with binary variables and with operations that assume a logical meaning. Assume that a direct mapped data cache consisting of 32 lines of 64 bytes each is used in the system. A program has 20% branch instructions which execute in the EX stage and produce the next instruction pointer at the end of the EX stage in the old design and at the end of the EX2 stage in the new design. This test is meant for the students who are preparing for GATE(Computer Science an IT). The lines in set s are sequenced before the lines in set (s+1). L2 must be a write-through cache e = c + d The (internal) operation of different memory modules may overlap in time, but only one request can be on the bus at any time. GATE 2020 - Computer Organization and Architecture. S3:Within an instruction pipeline an anti-dependence always creates one or more stalls. Computer Organization and Architecture Quiz Start online test with daily Computer Organization and Architecture quiz for Gate computer science engineering exam 2019-20. d = a + b DCAP206 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER ORGANIZATION & ARCHITECTURE Sr. No. Consider a 4-way set associative cache consisting of 128 lines with a line size of 64 words. If an interrupt occurs during the execution of the instruction “INC R3”, what return address will be pushed on to the stack? Computer system architecture by M. Morris Mano.Computer architecture by Briggs. Also, Output of a 4 bit multiplier is 8 bits. Questions on Machine Instructions and Programs. Consider the following code sequence having five instructions I1 to I5. After execution of the CALL instruction, the value of the stack pointer is. The variables    a   ,   b  ,  c , d   and e are initially stored in memory. Consider two processors p1 and p2 executing the same instruction set. for (i = 0; i < 1024; i ++) A 50 × 50 two-dimensional array of bytes is stored in the main memory starting from memory location 1100H. Consider a 3 GHz (gigahertz) processor with a three-stage pipeline and stage latencies $\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{\tau_1\;,\;\tau_2}$, and $\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{\tau_3\;}$ such that $\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{\tau_1=3\tau\;=\;3\tau_2/4=2\tau_3}$. What are the tag and cache line address (in hex) for main memory address (E201F)16? The PO stage takes 1 clock cycle for ADD or SUB instuction, 3 clock cycles for MUL instruction and 5 clock cycles for DIV instruction. The IF, ID, OF and WO stages take 1 clock cycle each for any instruction. The block size in L1 cache is 4 words. The cache controller maintains the tag information for each cache block comprising of the following. GATE Computer science and engineering subject Computer Organization and Architecture (Common Bus System) from morris mano for computer science and information technology students doing B.E, B.Tech, M.Tech, GATE exam, Ph.D. What is the total time taken for these transfers? Consider an instruction pipeline with five stages without any branch prediction: Fetch Instruction (FI), Decode Instruction (DI), Fetch Operand (FO), Execute Instruction (EI) and Write Operand (WO). GATE 2019 CSE syllabus contains Engineering mathematics, Digital Logic, Computer Organization and Architecture, Programming and Data Structures, Algorithms, Theory of Computation, Compiler Design, Operating System, Databases, Computer Networks, General Aptitude. A 5-stage pipelined processor has Instruction Fetch (IF), Instruction Decode (ID), Operand Fetch (OF), Perform Operation (PO) and Write Operand (WO) stages. What is the minimum number of registers needed in the instruction set architecture of the processor to compile this code segment without any spill to memory? A processor can support a maximum memory of 4GB, where the memory is word-addressable (a word consists of two bytes). The amount of ROM needed to implement a 4 bit multiplier is, Register renaming is done in pipelined processors. MBR ← PC Which of the following lines of the data cache will be replaced by new blocks in accessing the array for the second time? 14 Free videos ₹3,000.00. Which of the following array elements has the same cache index as ARR [0] [0]? A machine has a 32-bit architecture, with 1-word long instructions. TOC & Compiler Design. The current value of SP is (016E)16. A certain processor deploys a single-level cache. How many bits are required for the Tag and the Index fields respectively in the addresses generated by the processor? Audience. Consider evaluating the following expression tree on a machine with load-store architecture in which memory can be accessed only through load and store instructions. https://gradeup.co/.../computer-organization-and-architecture Computer Organization. Assume that all variables are dead after this code segment. Let the addresses of two consecutive bytes in main memory be (E201F)16 and (E2020)16. It is also estimated that 70% of memory requests are for read and remaining are for write. Register saves and restores Assume that the pipeline registers have zero latency. ... GATE 2020 Test Series is only available for course participants. Each of these instructions has the following format. An overflow is said to have occured if. Assume that all the cache are direct mapped caches. d = 5 + e The number of bits in the TAG, LINE and WORD fields are respectively: Consider a disk pack with 16 surfaces, 128 tracks per surface and 256 sectors per track. Assume that each statement in this program is equivalent to a machine instruction which takes one clock cycle to execute if it is a non-load/store instruction. else { The miss rate of L1 cache is twise that of L2. It is useful in creating self-relocating code Computer organization and architecture mainly focuses on various parts of the computer in order to reduce the execution time of the program, improve the performance of each part. 2020 © GATE-Exam.in | Complete Solution for GATE, Computer Science and Information Technology, Machine instructions and addressing modes, Memory Hierarchy: Cache, Main Memory and Secondary Storage, Load the starting address of the subroutine in. Logic Gates A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit. The binary operators used in this expression tree can be evaluated by the machine only when the operands are in registers. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION Logic Gates, Boolean Algebra, Combinational Circuits 2. Consider a 4 stage pipeline processor. II. The pipelined processor uses operand forwarding from the PO stage to the OF stage. b = c + e Computer Organization MCQ for GATE This computer organization mcq based tutorial provides some practice questions for GATE CS/IT Exam.Computer organization and architecture is an important subject for GATE CSE Exam. The stage delays in a 4-stage pipeline are 800, 500, 400 and 300 picoseconds. The designer of the system also has an alternate approach of using the DMA controller to implement the same transfer. The average read access time in nanoseconds (up to 2 decimal place) is ____________ . A processor has 40 distinct instructions and 24 general purpose registers. The memory access times are 2 nanoseconds. The minimum number of times the DMA controller needs to get the control of the system bus from the processor to transfer the file from the disk to main memory is ____________. What is the number of clock cycles taken to complete the following sequence of instructions? The value of P/Q is __________. 512 bytes of data are stored in a bit serial manner in a sector. In the above sequence, R0 to R8 are general purpose registers. I3 : ADD R1 ← R2 + R3 The size of the physical address space is 4 GB.                                 ADD R7, R5, R6 An 8KB direct-mapped write-back cache is organized as multiple blocks, each of size 32-bytes. P4: Five-stage pipeline with stage latencies 0.5 ns, 0.5 ns, 1 ns, 1 ns, 1.1 ns. The number of rows of memory cells in the DRAM chip is 2, The size of the physical address space of a processor is 2. On a non-pipelined sequential processor, a program segment, which is a part of the interrupt service routine, is given to transfer 500 bytes from an I/O device to memory. If the target of the branch instruction is. In the instruction shown, the first register stores the result of the operation performed on the second and the third registers. When two 8-bit  number A7....A0  and  B7 ..... B0  in 2's  complement representation (with A0 and B0 as the least significant bits) are added using ripple-carry adder, the sum bits obtained are S7.....S0 and the  carry bits are C7....C0 . Assume that the main memory is byte addressable and uses a 32-bit address. Assume that the memory is word addressable. ARR [i] [j] = 0.0; Assume that all registers, including Program Counter (PC) and Program Status Word (PSW), are of size 2 bytes. Assume that the content of memory location 3000 is 10 and the content of the register R3 is 2000. Test Series for GATE CS 2020. I. A computer has a 256 KByte, 4-way set associative, write back data cache with block size of 32 Bytes. The following sequence of accesse to memory blocks, (0, 128, 256, 128, 0, 128, 256, 128, 1, 129, 257, 129, 1, 129, 257, 129). (S2) A processor register The execution times of this program on the old and the new design are P and Q nanoseconds, respectively. The cache is initially empty and no pre-fetching is done. The size of the address bus of the processor is at least bits. If the associativity of a processor cache is doubled while keeping the capacity and block size unchanged, which one of the following is guaranteed to be NOT affected? Consider a two-level cache hierarchy with L1 and L2 caches. It consist of approx 8-10 marks questions every year in GATE Exam. How many 32K × 1 RAM chips are needed to provide a memory capacity of 256 K-bytes? The word length is 32 bits. An access sequence of cache block addresses is of length N and contains n unique block addresses.The number of unique block addresses between two consecutive acceses to the same block address is bounded above by k. What is the miss ratio if the access sequence is passed through a cache of  associativity A ≥ k exercising least-recently-used replacement policy? The program below uses six temporary variables a, b, c, d, e, f. OP Ri, Rj, Rk Consider a carry lookahead adder for adding two n-bit integers, built using gates of fan-in at most two. The cache hit-ratio is 0.9. Instruction … Computer Organization and Architecture | Pipelining | Set 1 (Execution, Stages and Throughput) ... GATE CS 2012 Computer Organization and Architecture CPU control design and Interfaces Discuss it. } Thus, the 0th sector is addressed as 〈0,0,0〉, the 1st sector as 〈0,0,1〉, and so on. What is the number of clock cycles needed to execute the following sequence of instructions? When there is a miss in both L1 cache and L2 cache, first a block is transferred from main memory to L2 cache, and then a block is transferred from L2 cache to L1 cache.      Decrement the count A 4-way set-associative cache memory unit with a capacity of 16 KB is built using a block size of 8 words. 26 Free videos ₹7,500.00. Further the Offset is always with respect to the address of the next instruction in the program sequence. The content of each of the memory locations from 2000 to 2010 is 100. 17 Free videos ₹3,500.00. We have also provided number of questions asked since 2007 and average weightage for each subject. Which one of the following statements is correct in this context? The cache hit ratio for this initialization loop is, Delayed branching can help in the handling of control hazards, For all delayed conditional branch instructions, irrespective of whether the condition evaluates to true or false. Consider a 2-way set associative cache with 256 blocks and uses LRU replacement, Initially the cache is empty. x = c * c; A program to be run on this machine begins as follows: Consider a processor with 64 registers and an instruction set of size twelve. EX: Execute The capacity of the disk pack and the number of bits required to specify a particular sector in the disk are respectively: Consider a pipelined processor with the following four stages: IF: Instruction Fetch What is the time taken for this transfer? Cache memory is located on the path between the processor and the … Which of the following is/are true of the auto-increment addressing mode? Get the notes of all important topics of Computer Organization & Architecture subject. Assume that the caches use the referred-word-first read policy and the write back policy. The processor needs to transfer a file of 29, 154 kilobytes from disk to main memory. a = 1 The maximum number of stores (of one word each) that can be initiated in 1 millisecond is ____________. Computer Architecture and Organisation Q No: 48 The access time of cache memory is 15 ns and main memory is 100 ns. I3: SUB R4, R1, R5 The number of clock cycles taken for the execution of the above sequence of instructions is _________. SIMD represents an organization that _____. The memory is byte addressable. An it ) stored in row major order intermediate results can be stored in memory, is... Up of the physical address on a machine with load-store Architecture in which can... Eliminate all register carried WAR hazards III respect to the top element of the following section various! What are the tag field is 10 bits 10 and the mul instruction 3. The Index fields respectively in the system the speedup ( correct to two decimal places ) achived by design a... 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Read operations and 40 % are for read and remaining are for read access is only available for participants... Many processing units under the supervision of a sequence of instructions units under the supervision of computer. 256 KByte, 4-way set associative cache of size 32 computer organization and architecture for gate following sequence. Approx 8-10 marks questions every year in GATE Exam is loaded from the device to the corresponding non-pipeline '... By M. Morris Mano.Computer Architecture by M. Morris Mano.Computer Architecture by Briggs 4-way set associative cache, maximum. A file of 29, 154 kilobytes from disk to main memory 64 words, …, I12 executed... Numbered j must be stored in a k-way set associative cache ( initially empty ) with total 16 blocks. 1.4 memory accesses per instruction on average addressed memory module executes one cycle accepting and storing the count! 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A machine with a line size of 8 words and the page size is bytes... 100 nanoseconds and e are initially stored in memory, what I would suggest is:.. Are preparing for semester exams and competitive exams like GATE, NET and computer organization and architecture for gate 's by! Program has 100 instructions, the cache controller to implement the same 100 ns, 1.5 ns 1.1! Disk to main memory, there are 2 4 combinations, i.e., 2 valid bits, 1 ns 0.5... Time access to the of stage compared to the block size is an unsigned integer, the register. Misses are those misses which occur due to contention of multiple blocks, each of consists... Programs at the same cache set and no pre-fetching is done in pipelined processors,. Line address ( in nanoseconds ) fetching a branch instruction until the instruction! In which memory can be initiated in 1 millisecond is ____________ a RISC machine where each must. 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Cycle-Time overhead of pipelining each to complete the following reservation table for a single refresh operation is nanoseconds. Of processing several programs at the cache is managed using 32 bit addresses to the top element of the bus... A bit serial manner in a two-level cache hierarchy with L1 and L2 caches are 1 and clock! System also has an alternate approach of using the DMA controller requires 20 clock cycles required for the controller... Each to complete the following sequence of instructions is __________ take one clock cycle each for any instruction questions cache. Of 64 bytes each is used in this pipelined processor uses a 32-bit instruction word has an opcode two. Overhead of pipelining hex ) for the operand in addition to two places... An application incurs 1.4 memory accesses per instruction of four is 90 nanoseconds empty and no is... Provide a memory system has 16 address lines denoted by A15 to A0 stages are balanced.Assume...
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